When we survey drivers during our training courses, wer regularly have over 90% of participants rating themselves as better than average drivers. You probably fall into this group too. It's almost certainly true; most of the time at least.
I have conducted thousands of driving evaluations over 25 years and I have run across very few really bad drivers. This raises the question of why we continue to have so many accidents on our roads and perhaps in your organization.
It can't be just a few bad drivers causing all the problems, so it must be something else. Could it be that all of us "good" drivers are the problem?
In fact, even good drivers will sometimes take chances and make mistakes in judgement that can end up in a crash.
What could cause a good driver to become involved in an at fault accident or property damage incident?
Good driving is a combination of Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes.
We need skills to safely and competently operate a motor vehicle; knowledge of the rules and regulations, and a positive attitude.
For decades, driver safety programs have identified these elements as the key to accident reduction and done a good job of refreshing knowledge in a classroom or on-line course and polished skills with behind the wheel training. Having a good attitude is also stressed. But what is a good attitude? What are attitudes in the first place?
We know a bad attitude when we see one, but to successfully make meaningful changes to driver behaviour, we need to help drivers understand, recognize and change their attitudes.
Attitudes are a mixture of belief systems and values that determine how we both respond to things in our lives like driving. It is our attitude that determines how we will use our skills and knowledge when confronted with a driving challenge.
Pre-conceived notions about other drivers based on age, gender or ethnicity and expectations about their behaviour, can create attitudes of intolerance and frustration where cooperation and patience may yield more positive results.
Failure to accept our powerlessness in situations where traffic is slow or tied up can encourage aggressive driving behaviour in an attempt to get there quicker.
Our attitudes are the prime determinant of how much risk we take on the road; our risk tolerance.
Risk tolerance is the amount of risk that we normally accept when performing a risky task like driving. What is crucial to understand, is that our tolerance for risk can change in a moment based on our internal state and the events around us.
Our emotional state is one of the personal factors that can cause changes in our willingness to risk. Stress, anger, overconfidence and fatigue are a few of these factors.
Our expectations play a huge role in the process. If we live in a world of SHOULD, we drive with the expectation that others should drive properly or safely, respect our space and follow the rules, and we are setting ourselves up for a stressful trip. When another driver doesn't meet our expectations and doesn't do what they SHOULD do, we may respond in anger and find that our willingness to take an unsafe risk escalates.
Anger at other driver's behaviour and frustration with traffic can cause us to take chances. So can minor problems like running late.
If you honestly ask yourself if you have ever done something downright dangerous while driving under the influence of stress or frustration, you will likely say yes.
You see, most people ARE good drivers, except during moments when they become angry, frustrated or otherwise influenced by factors that elevate risk tolerance.
Changing expectations is just one stress reduction technique that can make a major difference in driver attitudes and behaviour but most driving course fail to consider it and instead bore drivers with review of rules that most already know and for the most part, follow.
When we live in a world of IS instead of SHOULD, we drive with the expectation that there will be discourteous or rude drivers and that there will be traffic tie-ups and delays. We are armed now, however, with the knowledge and tools to safely and responsibly manage ourselves in these stressful situations. This goes a long way towards reducing risk taking behaviour behind the wheel of the company truck or our personal vehicles.
To make changes in fleet safety, simple driver training is only part of the solution. Defensive driving courses or refresher training that focuses only on driving rules and techniques, misses the critical issue of personal factors and attitudes that change risk tolerance. To be effective, driver safety training and education must focus on driver attitudes about risk and stress and provide more meaningful and workable tools that employees can use to self-manage these states. "HE CUT ME OFF" just doesn't cut it as an excuse for retaliatory behaviour that results in and incident.
Spencer McDonald - President of Thinking Driver, Surrey, BC
(reprinted as previously printed in Canadian Occupational Safety Magazine)
Thinking Driver is pleased to be in attendance at the following Safety Conferences across Canada:
- March 20 - 21 - Safety Services Nova Scotia: 31st Annual Health, Safety & Environment Conference, Halifax, NS (more information)
- April 5 - BC Trucking AGM, Northview Golf Club, Surrey, BC
- April 22 - 23 - Western Safety Conference, Vancouver, BC (more information)
- April 30 - May 1 - Partners In Prevention, Mississauga, ON (more information)
Spencer McDonald, President of Thinking Driver will be delivering a presentation on 'When Fleet Driver Training Isn't Enough'.
What happens when your corporate drivers get tickets or have accidents? Are they automatically sent back to re-attend a driver training program where they pass with flying colours, seemingly without effort? Lack of skill is clearly not the problem, so what is happening? Is retraining (again and again) really the answer or are other forces at play? Come hear the 8 critical elements that successful organizations use in their corporate driver safety programs.
Western Safety Conference - April 22 & 23, 2013 - Hyatt Regency Hotel, Vancouver, BC
Thinking Driver delivers Winter Driving Skills Training to Government of Northwest Territories, Department of Transportation Employees.
When I was asked if I would like to go to the Northwest Territories (NWT) for three weeks to deliver 'Winter Driving: Skid Control and Recovery', I thought what a great opportunity to see the North and at the same time, be in the very best part of Canada to facilitate winter driving courses.
My first stop was Yellowknife, where I was warmly greeted by the NWT employees. They had a large field near the airport that had been snow plowed for this course - which was great - but then they added water. Needless to say, this was an excellent simulation of roads turned to ice and/or their famous 'ice roads'.
We begin training with a classroom theory session in Winter Driving Fundamentals. We cover such things as the 6 conditions of winter driving, fundamentals of traction and control, 3 principal types of skid and how to recover from them. There were a lot of good questions in the class which made for an excellent discussion time prior to going out in the vehicles and putting it all into practical application.
Getting into the vehicles and out onto the icy surface to put the theory into practice really raises the enthusiasm and excitement of the group. It's about the most fun you can have in winter driving conditions: A safe, closed course, free of obstruction or other traffic, perfect for skidding.
When I took off to the Great White North, I cam prepared and was certainly grateful to have packed well once the temperature hit -40 degrees. The extra hat I picked up was very useful.
Despite the chillier temperatures, each morning I awoke to the beauty of a northern sunrise in all its glory. Breathtaking to behold and what a way to start my day!
After a week in Yellowknife, it was time to head to Hay River for a week. This leg of the journey began with a 45 minute flight over "Great Slave Lake" in a DC-3 with Buffalo Air. Not a large plane, but cozy, friendly, and we arrived safe and sound.
Again I was warmly greeted and welcomed by the NWT staff. Their track was created on an open field with a large snow island in the middle. The track was a combination of packed snow, ice, with some gravel sticking out to create a good example of what is found on local roads. The practical training was challenging, but we only had to shovel snow once to free a truck from the snow piled island. Another winter skill learned - how to get your vehicle unstuck!
My third week in the North started with another flight aboard Buffalo Air in that DC-3 to Yellowknife, followed by a 1.5 hour flight in a Boeing 737 to Inuvik with a brief stop over at Norman Wells. Inuvik was the smaller of the three locations and again filled with extremely friendly people. Once again the NWT staff greeted me like a Rock Star.
The practical training location was a large square area on the Mackenzie River, plowed for this course. For safety reasons, there was a wide snow bank separating out training area from an ice road that leads to Tukoyaktuk. This area proved to be challenging and a good simulation of what these NWT employees drive on a daily basis.
At the beginning of these three weeks, I felt a bit intimidated with the thought of attempting to teach winter driving skills to people who live their entire lives in the North and grew up in this driving environment. What could I teach that they didn't already know? As it turned out, the Thinking Driver program had many things to offer: How to drive in winter with new vehicle technology such as ABS brakes or electronic stabilizers; One of the main things that I was able to pass on to these students, is how to handle an 'under-steer' situation. Most were experts when their vehicle went into 'over-steer', but were unfamiliar with how to get out of an 'under-steer'. 90% of those who attended indicated they learned new things as well as having obtained an excellent review and reminder in other areas that could be improved upon.
I believe that if I can pass on even one good tip to enhance a driver's skill and competence and make driving a safer part of their day, then I've done my job and can go home happy and with a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction. After three weeks in the Northwest Territories, I am a happy man indeed.
– Michael Glas, Chief Instructor, Thinking Driver, March 2013
When I was 7 years old we came home one day from the grocery store and unloaded everything into the house while the car sate in the driveway. I stayed in the house with Mom and my sister while Dad put the car away. It was a 1957 Chevrolet Bel Air Sport sedan. Back then it was just a nice car; a couple more decades would pass before it became a classic.
So Dad backed the car into the garage and in the process tore off the back door that I had left open in my rush to get in the house. Clearly my fault - at least according to Dad.
Now in 1965, what do you think happened to children that left car doors open to be torn off by garages? Today it would draw attention from child services but back then I was just being taught a lesson.
But I digress. Whose fault was this really? Or is fault even worth discussing? Whose fault was it when Mom backed over my sister's bicycle with the Rambler?
Things just seemed to go wrong in our family when vehicles backed up. Or perhaps I'm a backing up jinx?
As a teenager, I cut the front end of my 1970 Dodge Super Bee into a power pole backing out of a service station and once even backed up in a left turn lane (don't ask) with Dad's pick up truck right into the grille of the compact car hiding behind the tailgate. I was real close when my buddy, Terry, backed his Toyota into a stump at Long Beach (he spent quite a while convincing us that it had been his wife's fault...somehow) and I was home when my former wife Rhonda backed her Acura out of the garage (or tried to) with the door still closed and another co-worker once connected with a tree while backing up in a company truck.
Is it just me or does this backing up stuff seem to be just a little more complicated than we all think?
In most vehicle fleets, backing incidents account for over 40% of all reportable vehicle incidents even though we drive in reverse only a fraction of the distances that we go forward. Backing incidents are a big deal. They absorb huge dollars in property damage and not infrequently result in serious injury.
Not surprisingly, backing incidents are almost always PREVENTABLE. In our courses, we highlight 7 fundamental ideas to prevent backing incidents. Maybe they will help you avoid some problems that I have seen (and on occasion caused).
1. Avoid Backing! - Let's face it, if you don't back up, you won't have a backing up incident. It's easier than you might think. Before you park your vehicle or get into any tight area, think about how you will get out. Can this be done without backing up? Most of us already scope out the spots, in the mall parking lots, that let us drive though an unoccupied spot to the next one, leaving us facing out for a quick getaway. That's thinking! Now apply that same logic at work. If you have to go somewhere to park or for other reasons, back up first, when you can see that the area is clear, and make your first move forward when you leave.
2. Circle Check - If you are moving your vehicle from a place where it has been parked or has not moved for a long enough that things may have changed, walk around and make sure that it's safe before you move it.
3. Look Back - In a pick up or utility vehicle, set up your mirrors properly and use them! If you can't see what's back there, stop and get out to look! In a passenger car, look out the centre of the rear window, over the back seat. (If you twist around and hike yourself up on your right butt cheek, it's easier). Looking out the driver window, over your left should doesn't tell you much and creates a huge blind spot everywhere except the narrow view down the driver's side.
4. Use a Guide - If someone else is around to help of if you have a passenger, have them get out and direct you.
5. Back Slowly - Your vehicle handles differently in reverse and can get difficult to control with too much speed. A walking pace is all the speed you will likely ever need.
6. Avoid Distractions- Don't try to multitask and use your cell phone or other hand-held device. If you are distracted by strong emotions or in a conversation, stop for a second before you back up and focus on your driving.
7. Practise - We back up so little that most of us never really get very good at it. So get out and practise backing up into parking spots in a deserted parking lot. Take a couple of traffic cones, if you have them, or small cardboard boxes and make up a little course for yourself. As you get better, your confidence will increase and you will soon be backing up safely, like a pro.
All of the backing incidents that I described above were off the job, and this is where I want to take extra care. Every year hundreds (yes hundreds) of young children are injured or killed when one of their parents, relatives or friends backs over them in the driveway at home. The 7 principles that you just read can save the life of a child. Go back now and read them again.
How can you apply them at home and at work?
Maybe as a kid, my family was pretty lucky after all. We only lost a bicycle or two - and that stupid Chevy door.
- Written by Spencer McDonald, President, Thinking Driver, Surrey, BC
I'm a liar. There, I said it. I lie.
I lie sometimes when I'm in a social situation and my line of work is questioned. If I know I'll never see these folks again, I might just tell them that I'm a painter. "I paint houses" I might say.
Now, I have been in the driver safety/training business for almost 3 decades, I hold pretty much every vehicle related training license available, I have been hired as a consultant to 2 different governments to develop licensing programs including road testing, I have trained hundreds of emergency vehicle operators including police pursuit training and authored numerous training courses, manuals and articles. But, sometimes, when asked what I do, I claim to be a house painter. Not that I think painting houses is a more worthy line of work than mine or that I'm ashamed of my profession, it's just that few people have strong opinions about house painting; how it should be done or not done or wants to start a debate to prove that the YOU paint isn't really right. If I say "I'm a house painter", my conversational partner will reply in a rather disinterested tone with eyes glazed over "oh, how interesting" and look desperately for someone whom they judge to actually BE interesting.
I lie because if I say I'm a driver safety training professional and have to explain just what that is, the next question or comment directed at me is usually about the accident that someone was in or ticket that someone got that 'clearly' was not their fault. They want to tell me the whole story of how the weather that day was particularly nasty, how the road has that strange dip, how the car in front "just stopped" for no reason making them run into the back of him. They want to tell me why the policeman who wrote them a ticket was wrong to do so. I have listened while otherwise seemingly intelligent people argue that they should not have received that speeding ticket because everyone else was speeding too!
What they really want is for me to agree with them.
I have learned to engage in these conversations at my peril. You see, as soon as I offer even the slightest of professional opinion about the apparent circumstances of the crash that they were in, mention the concept of preventability or point out that indeed, if they were speeding, the fact that everyone else was too isn't a very good excuse. (Mom always asked me if everyone else jumped off the bridge would I jump too?)
As soon as I disagree at all with the rightness of their position, or offer a different perspective, any credibility that I may have had with them initially, is gone. I become, in their eyes, an idiot. And I wish that I had said, "I'm a painter".
Funny thing about driving, EVERYONE thinks that they are an expert when in fact most people are woefully uninformed about some of the most basic of rules and regulations, defensive driving principles and tactics. Moreover, most people have an overinflated opinion of their own driving ability. A dangerous combination, I believe.
This condition, I think, points to one of the most fundamental reasons why we continue to have so many crashes. If we all believe that there is nothing wrong with our driving, that we know all that there is to know about driving, that we are all superbly skilled, expert drivers and everyone else is the problem, then we are unlikely to expend any energy to make improvements or to even learn from our mistakes.
So next time when you climb behind the wheel, ask yourself, "How's my driving?". Really analyse how you are doing instead of noting everyone else's mistakes and complaining about how bad everyone else is. Ask yourself if there are any bad habits that have crept in over the years that you could work on. Just don't assume that you couldn't possibility get any better. When life sends you feedback on your driving by way of a close call or a ticket, don't be so fast to blame someone else, there may be a valuable lesson that you are missing?
Who knows, you may just prevent that next ticket or incident.
Me? I'm still banking on never meeting someone who actually needs a house painter at one of those gatherings! So far so good.....
- Written by Spencer McDonald, President, Thinking Driver, Surrey, BC
Thinking Driver will be at the following events!
Association of School Transportation Services BC (ASTSBC) Conference - July 8 - 11, 2013 at the Sheraton Vancouver Airport Hotel, Richmond, BC (more information)
Canadian Society of Safety Engineering (CSSE) Professional Development Conference - September 15 - 18, 2013 at the Fairmont the Queen Elizabeth Hotel, Montreal, QC (more information)
Spencer McDonald, President of Thinking Driver - Upcoming Speaking Engagements
Canadian Society of Safety Engineering (CSSE) Professional Development Conference - '8 Critical Elements of a Successful Driver Safety Program' - Tuesday, September 17, 2013 at 2:30 pm - Fairmount the Queen Elizabeth Hotel, Montreal, QC (more information)
NEWS FLASH - Thinking Driver President Caught Red Handed in Flagrant Safety Violation!
It has come to this reporter's attention that in the production of Thinking Driver's Tailgate Topics & Tips Video - Back to School, Spencer McDonald, President of Thinking Driver, was caught on video tape committing a serious safety violation! When questioned about this infraction, McDonald said, "oops!'.
Check out Thinking Driver's Tailgate Topics & Tips - Back to School (click on the YouTube video) and see if you and your staff can find the safety violation.
Can you Predict the Future?
I'm not clairvoyant, but I can see into the future and so can you!
The second Thinking Driver Fundamental is ANTICIPATE HAZARDS.
A thinking driver first uses their eyes to look ahead to find out what's going on up front and then analyzes that information to ANTICIPATE HAZARDS. Seeing the potential hazard is not enough though. You need to anticipate what might affect you and then do something about it. When you anticipate hazards, you are taking a proactive approach to driving instead of a reactive one where you simply wait until something attracts your attention and demands your immediate action. In essence, you are predicting the future and acting in advance to keep bad things from happening!
Good drivers know what the most common hazards are and what they may dot to challenge you.
I was driving home one night, on a divided highway, and saw an intersection ahead, perhaps half a kilometer away. Suddenly a car turned from the intersecting road into the oncoming lane (my lane) and started up the wrong side of the road, straight at me. His headlights were shining right into my face! Not tough to see him, that was for sure, but what was he going to do? How could I anticipate what he would do?
So I'm slowing down as we get closer to each other but there's still a fair distance to go. As he realizes that he's on the wrong side of the road, he pulls towards the shoulder on my side of the highway, still facing me. I move to the left lane to create some separation between us and have slowed significantly from my original speed of 70 km/h. Surely he must see me, right? WRONG! Just as I was passing him, as he sat on the shoulder facing the wrong way, he decides to U-turn and I clip his driver side front fender, as he doesn't make it all the way around without encroaching on my lane.
So, did anticipation prevent the incident?
Not really, but what it did do was get me out of the right lane and slowed down so that instead of nailing him in the driver's door, it was a minor damage scrape on his front fender.
We all stop in a nearby parking lot to exchange information. He's 16, with a carload of friends and has only had his license for a couple of weeks. Its dad's car and what was his excuse for turning right into my headlight? You guessed it! "I didn't see you coming?"
There is no telling what people will do, but the more you pay attention, and try to figure out how to protect yourself, the better chance that you have to avoid conflicts.
Some tricks that you can use are:
- Watch Other Driver's Eyes! If you can see them looking at you, there is a reasonable (albeit not guaranteed) chance that they see you. If they are not looking at you, be ready for anything. If there is time, attract their attention with a light tap on the horn.
- Check the Front Tires of Oncoming Cars at Intersections. This gives you a clue about what they may do. If the front wheels are pre-turned for a left turn across your path, be ready, cover the brake and slow down. You may not be seen.
- When You See Large Vehicles Taking Up More Than One Lane or driving in the left lane with a right signal on, ask yourself; is this guy just an idiot or is there a good explanation for this vehicle position and signal? Is he going to turn right and needs the space? Heading down the right lane beside him could result in a world of trouble.
- Check In and Under Parked Cars. The easiest way to identify pedestrians moving around or between vehicles is to watch for their feet under the parked vehicle. Checking for people inside the vehicle will help you anticipate it either moving or a door opening. Exhaust steam in winter or tail lights/brake lights are another clue.
There are endless tricks and techniques.
You probably already use many more than I've mentioned here. The key is to THINK while you LOOK AHEAD and imagine what might happen. Pretty soon you will be telling your passengers what those other drivers are about to do before they do it and you will be predicting the future too!
Written by Spencer McDonald, President of Thinking Driver. (Reprinted as previously published in Canadian Occupational Safety Magazine.)
In this month's feature, Spencer McDonald discusses the importance of managing your space in traffic.
We used to play a video game called Space Invaders where you had to destroy little spaceships as they appeared on the screen. While it pales in comparison to today's games, it was pretty hi-tech for its time.
Space invaders can be a problem when we are driving too!
While space may be the final frontier, it's also one of the most important elements of safe driving.
The 3rd of Thinking Driver's Five Fundamentals is:
KEEP YOUR OPTIONS OPEN.
Keeping your options open means to keep as much space around you as you can when you drive. Space in front, to the sides and to the rear. I try to adjust my speed and position in traffic so that I'm all by myself.
SPACE GIVES YOU TIME.
Time to see, think and do what is necessary to avoid conflict with other vehicles.
This Fundamental dovetails with the first 2 that we have already discussed: 'Think and Look Ahead' and 'Anticipate Hazards'. By planning your position in traffic to provide space, you have the time to use your eyes effectively to look ahead and all around you so that you can anticipate the hazards that you may face.
Space then gives you the time and the room to deal with these challenges before they become an emergency. Your driving becomes PRO-active instead of RE-active. Besides being safer, this style is more relaxing because you don't have to feel on edge in case some dummy makes a move without seeing or considering YOUR position. How do you create space? It's easier than you think and if you practise it for a while, you will soon be doing it without even thinking. It will become habitual.
The first and most obvious technique is to maintain a safe following distance. At least 2 seconds behind the car in front and more if the conditions are anything but ideal.
If traffic is heavy and slow, this is even more important because sudden changes in speed, several cars in front of you, can ripple back quickly. When traffic is heavy, and slower, than you prefer, it's easy to creep up and get too close to the vehicle in front, as you hope things will start moving faster. Instead, trying driving the speed of traffic (which you are forced to do anyways) but do it with a good following distance. Running traffic speed but back out of the 'pack' will get you there just as quickly, but save you from having to deal with the drama of driving in a mass of cars and trucks jockeying for position.
"But someone may move into the space in front of me!" you may say.
But I say, "So what!"
Back off and open up the space again. What's one car in front of you..or 10 cars in front of you for that matter? Who cares? It's only a couple of seconds and those guys who weave through traffic and try to get ahead will pull out and go around the guy in front of you too.
SPACE TO THE SIDES IS ALSO IMPORTANT!
That space allows you to make lane changes or lateral movements on short notice if something changes up front that necessitates a lane change like congestion or vehicles waiting to turn. Keep track of the other vehicles in the adjacent lanes and try to adjust your speed so that you are not driving right besides them.
SPACE TO THE REAR IS TOUGHER, BUT STILL POSSIBLE TO MANAGE.
If you are being tailgated, the best strategy is to get that vehicle off your tail by adding the following distance that he is NOT leaving, to the following distance between you and the car in front. If you are leaving 3 seconds, and the car behind is only leaving 1, where he should be leaving 3, add the extra 2 and make your following distance 5 seconds. He's likely in a hurry and will find that big space in front of you irresistible and pass you. Problem solved.
In the old Space Invaders game, we just blasted the little alien pests right out of the sky. As much as we may want to do the same to those 'driving' space invaders, the safer and more responsible choice is to change the game and just play 'keep away'!
(Reprinted as previously published in Canadian Occupational Safety Magazine)
Spencer McDonald is Recognized by Canadian Society of Safety Engineering.
Congratulations to Thinking Driver President, Spencer McDonald, as the recipient of the 2013 CSSE BC Yukon Region Outstanding Achievement Award.
Mr. McDonald was recognized for his 30+ years of fleet and driver safety. CSSE awards were presented at the Awards Luncheon held at Newlands Golf Club in Langley, BC on October 24, 2013.
Other Notable Recipients:
CSSE National Awards Program
NAOSH Week - Most Innovative - Agropur Division Natrel
Outstanding Service - BC/Yukon - Norm Ralph (BCRTC)
NAOSH Week - BC Special Awards
Most Innovative - Agropur Division Natrel
BC Safety Authority Records a 60% Incident Rate Reduction Following Thinking Driver Training!
'Thinking Driver's President - Flagrant Safety Violation' Contest!
Congratulations to the Winners of the 'Flagrant Safety Violation!' Contest!
Thank you to everyone, from across North America who entered our 'Thinking Driver's President - Flagrant Safety Violation' contest. The contest is now over and while we had hundreds of entries, unfortunately on the first 11 are winners!
In September, in the Tailgate Topics & Tips #26 - Back to School video, Thinking Driver President, Spencer McDonald, discussed driver safety during back to school time and during the filming, after several 'takes' of one segment, forgot to put on his seatbelt before rolling the vehicle 10 feet or so out of the frame. Everyone who reviewed the video missed this error..until it was released and brought to our attention by Glenn Robertson of City of Penticton, BC, who was the first person to see the mistake and while not on the winner's list deserves special mention for being the first to see it! Nice catch Glenn!
If you would like to see the video again and check for yourself, it's still available for a short time only. Click on the video icon to have one last look and laugh.
Congratulations to all of our winners and thanks to everyone else who entered.
Christine Plomb - Allteck Line Contractors Inc. (Saskatoon, SK)
Ben Bunce (Kennesaw, GA)
Rich Hildebrand - Saskatchewan Government (Prince Albert, SK)
William C. Young - Willco Transportation Ltd. (Calgary, AB)
Spenser MacPherson - HSE Atlantic (Charlottetown, PE)
Jan Smith - Wolf's Bus Lines (York Springs, PA)
Janet Pool - Metro Vancouver (Burnaby, BC)
Dan Tucker - Northern Industrial Training (Palmer, AK)
Lynn Edwards - Franklin Co. Comm School Corp (Brookeville, IN)
Don Simmons - ACSA (Calgary, AB)
Tailgate Topics & Tips: Safety Meeting Planner & Agenda
Click here to access November's free Safety Meeting Planner.
Preview the Antilock Brakes video that accompanies this November's Safety Meeting Planner, click here.
Click here to access December's free Safety Meeting Planner.
Preview the Avoid Intersection Incidents video that accompanies December's Safety Meeting Planner, click here.
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